Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu’s) real name was Abdullah, and he was given the title of “As Siddique” or “Testifier to the Truth.” His father, ‘Uthman, was known as Abu Quhafah and his mother, Salma, was known as Ummul Khair. He was two and a half years younger than Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).He was the first among the Sahaba to accept Islam. He accompanied Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) during the Hijrah to Madinatul Munawwarah. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) was a merchant. He freed many slaves, including Sayyiduna Bilal (radi Allahu anhu) and Sayyiduna Umayyah bin Qahaf (radi Allahu anhu). He participated in all the battles in which Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) had to fight the Kuffar. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) loved his faith more than anything else. At the Battle of Badr, his son, Sayyiduna Abdur Rahman (radi Allahu anhu), was fighting on the side of the Kuffar. After accepting Islam, Sayyiduna Abdur Rahman (radi Allahu anhu) said to his father, “O Father, at Badr, you were twice under my sword, but my love for you held my hand back.” To this, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) replied, “Son, if I had you only once under my sword, you would have been no more.” He was so uncompromising in his faith. At the time of the Battle of Tabuk, he donated all his wealth to the war effort, and when Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) asked him, “What have you left for your family,?” he replied, “Allah and His Rasool (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).” Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) fell ill at this time and passed away on the 21st of Jamadi-ul-Aakhir 13 A.H. (22 August 634). His rule lasted 2 years and 3 months. He was 63 years old.
One of the many contributions of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) was the collection and compilation of the Holy Quran
He lived a very simple, pious and upright life. He was a true servant of Almighty Allah and a meticulous follower of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). He wore ordinary clothes and his meals were very simple. He attended to house-hold work and would go out at night and seek the poor and destitute. Humility and modesty were the keynotes of his character. He felt embarrassed when people showered praises on him or showed him immense respect. He often fasted during the day and spent the whole night in Salaah and meditation. He was a great orator and a master of genealogy (one who can trace a person’s family line). In personal life, he was a Saint. He used all his powers to promote the interest of Islam and the good of people.
Sayings of Abu Bakr (Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu)
• Always fear Allah as He knows what is in your hearts
• Be kind to those who are obedient to you and treat them well
• Give brief orders as long speeches are likely to be forgotten
• Improve your own behaviour before demanding others to improve theirs
• Always speak the truth so that you may attain the right advice
• Be sincere to all those whom you deal with
• Refrain from cowardice and lies
• Remain far from bad company
Sayidunna Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhu) Before he passed away, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) consulted the senior Sahaba and elected Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) as the second Caliph of the Muslims.
He was the son of Khattab and is famous in Islamic history as “Al Farooq” or “One who Distinguishes between Right and Wrong.” His acceptance of Islam is also very famous. Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) was a very brave and straight-forward person. He was tough and uncompromising in Islamic principles. He was a great and talented ruler. During his Khilaafat, vast areas of the Roman and Persian empires and the whole of Egypt were brought under Islamic rule. He was also a gifted orator. He was very concerned for the welfare of the Muslims. He left a honourable legacy for Muslims after him. The Holy Quran was given to him by Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) for safe-keeping.
Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anu) was a strong disciplinarian. He noticed the tremendous popularity of Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu). He felt that people will lose trust in Almighty Allah and put all their trust in Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu). He feared that the people may think too highly of him, thereby possibly increasing the self-esteem of Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu) which would also breed arrogance, so he removed Sayyiduna Khalid (radi Allahu anhu) and appointed Sayyiduna Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah (radi Allahu anhu) as the Commander in Chief of the Muslim army. Sayyiduna Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu) happily accepted the orders of Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) and then served as an ordinary soldier. This is an example of the Islamic teachings of obedience to leadership!
A Persian non-Muslim, named Firoz and nicknamed “Abu Lulu,” complained to Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) about his master, Sayyiduna Mughirah bin Shuba (radi Allahu anhu), who imposed tax on him. Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) told Firoz that the tax was reasonable. This made Firoz angry. The next day, during the Fajr Salaah, he stabbed Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) 6 times in the back, severely wounding the Caliph. Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) passed away 3 days later in 23 A.H. He was 63 years old. He ruled the Islamic State for 10 years, 6 months and 4 days.
Simplicity and devotion were the main characters of Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu). He used to wear clothes that had many patches and yet received Governors, convoys and diplomats. He took just enough allowance from the State to have a simple meal and wear simple clothes. At times he was very poor. He used to visit the old people and sick and even do their house work. He used to visit the houses of the soldiers and inquire about their families. He stayed awake at night in Salaah and often kept Fast. He always supported and upheld the cause of Islam, with his wisdom, energy, dynamism, bravery and little wealth.
Sayings of Umar (Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu)
• Do not be mislead by a persons reputation
• Do not estimate a person by his performance of outward actions but look at his truthfulness and wisdom
• Do not leave your work for tomorrow
• He who does not recognise evil can easily fall into its trap
• Judge a persons intelligence by the question he asks
• It is easier not to commit sins rather being sorry for them afterwards
• Be grateful to the one who points out your defects
Before he passed away, Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) appointed a six-man Committee to elect his successor from among themselves. After long discussions and consultation, they elected Sayyiduna ‘Uthman bin Affan (radi Allahu anhu) as the third Caliph of Islam.
Sayyiduna ‘Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) belonged to the Ummayah tribe of the Quraish. He was a very rich cloth merchant. He was known as “Al Ghani” or “The Generous.” His father’s name was Affan and his mother was Urwa.
He accepted Islam at the invitation of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) and migrated to Abyssinia with his wife, Sayyadah Ruqayyah (radi Allahu anha), who was also the daughter of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).
After she passed away, he married Sayyadah Umme Kulthum (radi Allahu anha), another daughter of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Because of this, he earned the title “Zun Noorain” or “Possessor of Two Lights.” He took part in all the battles with Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) except the Battle of Badr.
The Governors of the provinces, appointed by Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu), were removed and replaced by members of the new Caliph’s clan. The majority of the new governors were inspired by worldly means rather than by piety and interests of their subjects. People started to demand the removal of these Governors, but the Caliph did not respond to their appeals. Delegates mainly from Iraq and Egypt, submitted their demands to the Caliph. The situation, however got out of control. In the turmoil, Sayyiduna ‘Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) himself was made Shaheed by rebels while he was reading the Holy Quran inside his house. This happened on Friday, the 17th of Zil Hajj in 35 A.H.. He was 84 years old.
Sayyiduna ‘Uthman (radi Allah anhu) was a very simple and very kind person. His simplicity and kindness did not alow him to take strong action against the trouble makers and rioters. Above all, because of his simple-mindedness, his administration was not as disciplined as it had been during the Khilaafat of Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu).Sayyiduna ‘Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) was a generous man. He used to spend a lot of money for Islam and to free the slaves. He was a great and pious man who feared and loved Almighty Allah and Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) above everything else. Although he was very rich, his living was very simple. He did not indulge in luxury. He was ever mindful of death. Major parts of the night were spent in Salaah. He also fasted every second or third day.
A major achievement of Sayyiduna ‘Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) was the duplication of the Holy Quran from the records kept by Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu), who handed it to Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu), who then handed it to his daughter, Sayyadah Hafsa (radi Allahu anha), the wife of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).Sayyiduna ‘Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) made copies of the Holy Quran from the original and sent it to capitals such as Kufa, Damascus, Makkatul Mukarramah and Basrah, each accompanied by a Sahabi for the guidance of the readers.;
Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) was elected as the fourth Caliph by the Muslims. During the period of the first three Caliphs, Madinatul Munawwarah continued to be the capital of the Muslim world, but Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) transferred the Islamic capital to Kufah in Iraq.
Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) was the son of Abu Taalib, an uncle of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) was married to Sayyadah Bibi Fathima (radi Allahu anha), the daughter of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). They had 3 sons, Sayyiduna Hassan, Sayyiduna Hussain and Sayyiduna Mohsin (radi Allahu anhumul ajma’in).Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) took part in the battle of Badr, Khandaq and Khaibar. At Khaibar, it was Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) who subdued the Jews with his furious assault. He also held many important positions during the time of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and the first 3 Caliphs before him.
He had a love for learning and was a great and learned person himself. He had been given the title of “Baabul I’lm” or “Gate of Learning” by Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). He was also called “Asaadullah” or “Lion of Allah.”
The situation in Madinatul Munawwarah after the murder (Shahaadah) of Sayyiduna ‘Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) was serious. Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu’s) first task was to rid Madinatul Munawwarah of the rebels and to return the situation to normal.
Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) was able to force the rebels to withdraw from Madinatul Munawwarah and to establish peace and order in the city. The powerful governor of Syria, Sayyiduna Mu’awiyah (radi Allahu anhu), challenged Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) and refused to pay homage to him. Sayyiduna Mu’awiyah (radi Allahu anhu) insisted that Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) arrest the murderers of Sayyiduna ‘Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) and hand them over to him.
Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) was a man with a deep sense of justice and did not want to accuse the wrong people. He needed a peaceful period to trace the culprits. But, Sayyiduna Mu’awiyah (radi Allahu anhu) began accusing him of protecting the murderers, and in this way the old enmity between the two families were revived.
On the 17th of July 659 A.C., Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) overcame the Khaarijees in a battle near Nahrawan, in which, it is said, that 40 000 lives were lost.
In the early morning of the 24th of January 661 A.C., Abdul Rahman bin Muljim, a Khaariji fanatic lay in ambush in the Masjid of Kufah and stabbed Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) when he entered the musjid. He passed away from the wound. He was 63 years old.
Sayyiduna Ali (radi allahu anhu) lived a simple life. He refused any luxury food and wore simple clothes thinking of the poor. He should sleep on the ground and even sit on the floor. He repaired his own clothes and shoes and even did manual labour. He spent nights in Salaah and should fast for three days in a row. Honesty, piety, justice and love of truth were the main marks of his character.
Sayings of Ali (Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu)
- One who recognises himself, recognises his Creator
- If you love Allah, tear out the love of the world from your heart
- Fear of Allah makes one feel secure
- The best person is the one who is most helpful to his fellow men
- One who thinks himself as the best is the worst
- One who is proud of his worldly possessions is this short life is ignorant
- Learned men live even after death whilst ignorant men are dead although alive
- A hypocrite’s tongue is clean but sickness lies in his heart
- The sign of a stupid person is his frequent change of opinions
- Better alone than in bad company
Imam Ĥasan ibn Álī ibn Abū Ţālib rađiyallāhu ánhū [May Allāh táālā be pleased with him]: Abū Muĥammad, the grandson of RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam and his perfume; and the last khalifa as mentioned in the ĥadīth.
Ibn Saád reports from Ímrān ibn Sulaymān; said he: ‘Ĥasan and Ĥusayn are two names from paradise; none of the Arabs knew of this name prior to these two in Jahiliyyah.
Ĥasan was born on the 15th of Ramađān, the third year after hijrah. He has narrated ĥadīth from RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam. Áāyishah rađiyallāhu ánhā has narrated from him; also, a multitude from among the tabiúūn [the successors] have narrated from him. Like his own son Ĥasan the Second, Abū Ĥawrā’a Rabīáh ibn Sinān, Shaábī, Abū Wāyil and Ibn Sīrīn.
He resembled RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam very much. RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam named him Ĥasan. He sacrificed [two lambs] on his behalf on the seventh day and shaved the newborn’s head. He instructed that the weight of this hair in silver, to be given away as charity. And he is among the five, known as the ‘folk of the cloak’.
Áskarī says: This name [Ĥasan] was not known at all in the pagan times [Jahiliyya].
Mufađđal says: Allāh táālā had concealed the names Ĥasan and Ĥusayn, until the Prophet şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam named his two [grand] sons with these names.
Bukhāri reports from Anas; said he: ‘No one resembled the Prophet şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam more than Ĥasan ibn Álī.’
Shaykhayn report from Barā’a; said he: I have seen RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam with Ĥasan upon his shoulder, saying: ‘O Allāh I love him, so [Ye] love him too’.
Bukhāri reports from Abū Bakr, said he: I have seen RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam on the pulpit [minbar] with Ĥasan on his side. He looked at the assembly and Ĥasan alternately, and said: ‘Verily, this son of mine is a great leader. Mayhap that Allāh will unite two groups of Muslims on his account.’
Bukhāri reports from Ibn Úmar, said he: ‘Both [Ĥasan and Ĥusayn] are my two perfumes in this world’.
Tirmidhī and Ĥākim report from Abū Saýīd al-Khudrī, said he: RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam said: ‘Ĥasan and Ĥusayn are the two leaders of young men in paradise’.
Tirmidhi reports from Usāmah ibn Zayd, said he: I once saw Ĥasan and Ĥusayn on the lap of RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam and he said: ‘These two are my children, my grandsons. O Allāh I love them; [You] love them too. And love all those who love them’.
It is reported from Anas, said he: RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam was asked, which member of his family were his favorite; he replied: ‘Ĥasan and Ĥusayn’.
Ĥākim reports from Ibn Ábbās, that RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam was once carrying Ĥasan on his shoulders. A man met him on the way and said: ‘What a magnificent mount that you ride, young man.’ RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam replied, ‘And what a magnificient rider is he!’
Ibn Saád reports from Ábdullāh ibn Zubayr, said he: Ĥasan ibn Álī resembled RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam the most in his family and was the dearest to him. I have seen him [Ĥasan] ride upon RasulAllah’s neck şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam – or he said back – when he was in prostration and RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam wouldn’t arise until Ĥasan dismounted himself. I have seen him [RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam] in rukuú when Ĥasan would crawl by his feet. RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam would let him go between his legs to the other side.’
Ibn Saád reports from Abū Salamah ibn Ábd ar-Raĥmān, said he: RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam would put out his [blessed] tongue to Ĥasan ibn Álī; the little child would cheer up, on seeing the redness of his tongue.
Ĥākim reports from Zuhayr ibn al-Arqam, said he: Ĥasan ibn Álī stood up to speak; a man from the Azd tribe stood up and said: ‘ I bear witness that I have seen RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam holding him [Ĥasan] in his arms and say: ‘Whoever loves me, loves him; those present should convey this to those who aren’t.’ If it was not for the love and honor of RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam, I would not have narrated this to anyone.’
Ĥasan rađiyallāhu ánhū was a man of many qualities; he was a leader of men, forbearing and patient, a man of dignity and sobriety, staid and demure; and very generous. He disliked war and fighting. He married many times. He would give away a hundred thousand [as a present or charity] without giving it a thought.
Ĥākim reports from Ábdullāh ibn Úbayd ibn Úmayr, said he: ‘Ĥasan went on Ĥajj twenty-five times on foot, even though very fine camels were driven alongside.’
Ibn Saád reports from Úmayr ibn Iş-ĥāq, said he: ‘Never has anyone spoken, whose speech has left me wanting [that i wished his speech to never end] other than Ĥasan ibn Álī. I have never heard harsh speech [kalimata fuĥshin] from him except once. Ámr ibn Úthmān and Ĥasan had a disagreement over a piece of land. Ĥasan proposed something which Ámr did not accept. Ĥasan said: ‘He hath not with us, except what he loathes’. These were the harshest words i have heard coming from him.’
Ibn Saád reports from Ámr ibn Iş-ĥāq, said he: Marwān was appointed as our governor. Every Friday, he would swear at Álī on the pulpit. Ĥasan would hear him but wouldn’t say a word. Marwān [out of frustration] sent a man to him with a message ‘ Álī is such and such and such..and you are so and so and so…and you are like a mule when it is asked, ‘Who is your father’, replies: ‘My mother is a horse’. Ĥasan said to the man: ‘Go back and tell him [Marwān], by Allāh, i cannot erase that which you have said by swearing back at you. However, we shall be presented to Allāh at an appointed time. If you are saying the truth, then may Allāh reward you for saying the truth. And if you are lying, then [fear] Allāh, for He has a painful torment [for the transgressors].
Ibn Saád reports from Zurayq ibn Suwār: Marwān and Ĥasan had an argument. and Marwān began to speak rough; Ĥasan kept silent. And then Marwān began picking his nose with his right hand. Ĥasan said: ‘Woe unto you. Did you not learn to use the right hand for clean things, and the left, to clean? Shame on you.’ This silenced Marwān.
Ibn Saád reports from Ash’áth ibn Suwār from somebody else , who said: A man came in and sat with Ĥasan. Ĥasan said: ‘You have come, when we were about to leave. Will you [please] permit us to leave?’
Ibn Saád reports from Álī ibn Ĥusayn, said he: Ĥasan would divorce his wives after a short marriage. Inspite of that, the women kept loving him even after being divorced. He married [about] ninety women.
Ibn Saád reports from Álī ibn Zayd ibn Jadáān, said he: Ĥasan would give [charity] from his wealth twice.
Ibn Saád reports from Jaáfar ibn Muĥammad from his father, said he: Ĥasan would marry and divorce soon after. I feared that this would harbor enmity amongst the clans.
Ibn Saád reports from Jaáfar ibn Muĥammad from his father, said he: Álī [ibn Abū Ţālib] said : ‘O the people of Kūfā; do not give in marriage, your daughters to Ĥasan for he is quick to divorce.’ A man from the Hamdān clan stood up and said: ‘By Allāh, we shall keep giving our daughters to him in marriage. Those whom he likes, he keeps; and those he doesn’t, he divorces.’
Ibn Saád reports from Ábdullāh ibn Ĥasan, said he: ‘Ĥasan married many women. Not many women dwelt with him for long. Yet, none of the women he married [and divorced] loved him any less.’
Ibn Ásākir reports from Juwayriyyah ibn Asmā’a, said he: When Ĥasan died, Marwān sobbed at his funeral. Ĥusayn said: ‘Now, you cry? Weren’t you impudent when he was alive?’ Marwān replied: ‘I used to do all that I did, to a man who was more forbearing than this..’ and he pointed towards the mountain.
Ibn Ásākir reports from Mubarrad, said he: Someone said to Ĥasan, ‘Abū Dharr used to say: I desire poverty instead of wealth; being sick is better than being healthy’. Imām Ĥasan replied: ‘May Allāh have mercy on Abū Dharr; as for myself, i say: He who trusts in that which Allāh has chosen for him, shall not seek a state different from what Allāh has ordained.’ This is an example of extreme submission to Allah’s Will and Command.
Ĥasan rađiyallāhu ánhū became the caliph after his father was martyred, by the allegiance of the Kūfans. He remained such for six months and a few more days. Muáāwiyah opposed him – and everything happens as Allāh wishes – and sought to fight him. Ĥasan sent an envoy seeking peace, and wished to renounce the post in favor of Muáāwiyah, if he agreed to certain conditions:
-That Ĥasan shall be the caliph after Muáāwiyah.
-The status of the people from Madīnah, Ĥijāz and Írāq shall be restored as it was in the days of his father.
-And that Muáāwiyah shall repay all of Ĥasan’s loans.
Muáāwiyah accepted these and thus the prophecy of RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam came to pass. He şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam has said: ‘Allāh shall unite two great groups of Muslims on his [Ĥasan’s] account’.
Bulqīni used this event as a proof for the ruling that it is permissible to resign from authority.
Imām Ĥasan’s renunciation was in the year 41 AH, in the month of Rabiý al-Awwal; there are also reports that it was in Rabiý al-Ākhir or Jumada al-Ūlā.
One of Imām Ĥasan’s companions [distressed by his abdication] said to him: ‘You are a disgrace to believers’. And he said: ‘To be a disgrace, is better than falling from grace’ 
A man said to him: ‘Peace be upon you, the cause of humiliation of Muslims’. He replied: ‘I did not cause their humiliation; yes, i did not like to slaughter them to remain in power’.
After this, Ĥasan left Kūfah and retired to Madīnah.
Ĥākim reports from Jubayr ibn Nufayr, said he: I said to Ĥasan, ‘people say that you desire the caliphate.’ He replied: ‘I had Arab warriors at my command to fight whom I did and befriend those I wished; but I renounced war, seeking to please Allāh and to avert spilling the blood of the followers of Muĥammad şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam just for the sake of power.’
Imām Ĥasan rađiyallāhu ánhū died in Madinah after he was poisoned. [It is said that] Jádah bint al-Asháth ibn Qays poisoned him conspiring with Yazīd ibn Muáāwiyah when he [Yazīd] promised to marry her. After Imām Ĥasan’s death, she sent for Yazīd who snubbed her saying: ‘We didn’t wish you for Ĥasan; would we want you for our own self?’
Imām Ĥasan died in the year 49 AH. It is said that he died on the 5th of Rabiý al-Awwal, 50 AH. It is also said that it was in 51 AH.
His brother entreated him to name the poisoner; Imām Ĥasan declined and said: ‘If it is the one I suspect, Allāh shall take that person into account. If not, I do not wish that an innocent is killed on my account’.
Ibn Saád reports from Ímrān ibn Ábdullāh ibn Ţalĥah, said he: Ĥasan saw in his dream as if ‘Qul huwa Allāhu Aĥad’ was written between his eyes. When this dream was related to Saýīd ibn al-Musayyib, he interpreted: ‘If this dream is true, then his death is very near’. He lived for only a few days after this event.
Bayhaqī and Ibn Ásākir report from Ibn al-Mundhir Hishām ibn Muĥammad [who reports] from his father: Once hardship befell Ĥasan ibn Álī. His annual pension was a hundred thousand. Muáāwiyah delayed the pension and this caused Ĥasan intense privation. Ĥasan says:
‘I sought to write to Muáāwiyah describing him my state. Somehow, I restrained myself and put it off for later. I saw RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam in my dream and he asked: ‘How are you Ĥasan?’ I replied, ‘Grandfather, I am fine’.
I then complained to him of harsh times and indigence. He asked, ‘Did you seek to write to someone like yourself, complaining of adversity?’ I said, ‘Yes, yā RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam. What else can I do?’ RasulAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam said, recite this duáā instead: ‘O Allāh put in my heart, that I hope from Thee Alone. And I hope not from any other except Thee. So much that I seek not [anything] from anyone other than Thyself. O Allāh [I seek Thee] that which I cannot attain by my strength [alone], neither do my deeds deserve to be rewarded, and that which does not exhaust my craving, and that which I cannot achieve by mere asking, and that which I cannot name it, bring it upon my tongue. Give me that, which Thou hath bestowed upon those past and those who came after. O Allāh give me the privilege of attaining Thy Grace.’
Ĥasan says: ‘It was about a week since I began beseeching in these words and Muáāwiyah sent me a million and a half. I said, ‘Praise be to Him, who does not forget’. Presently, I saw RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam in my dream. He asked: ‘How are you Ĥasan?’ I replied: ‘I am fine, O RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam’ and narrated the story to him. He şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam said: ‘My son, thus it happens to those who hope from the Creator Alone, and nothing from the creation’
It is in Aţ-Ţuyūrāt from Sulaym ibn Ýīsā, the Qāri of Kūfans: When Ĥasan was about to die, he was anxious and anguished. Ĥusayn said: ‘Brother, why are you anxious? You retire towards RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam and Álī, them being your fathers; towards Khadījah and Fāţimah, your mothers; Qāsim and Ţāhir, your [maternal] uncles; Ĥamzah and Jáfar, your [paternal] uncles. He replied: ‘Nay my brother! I am [anxious] since I enter a place, which I have seen not before; and I see [before me] a people, I have seen not before.’
Ibn Ábd al-Barr says: When Ĥasan was about to die, he said to his brother: “My dear brother, your father would have inherited the noble title [Khilāfah], but Allāh made Abū Bakr to inherit it instead. And then it passed to Úmar. There was no doubt that he would inherit [now] when the council met; but it passed to Úthmān. Only thereafter did Álī inherit that post. But then, he [also] inherited hostility and war; by Allāh, in my estimation, prophethood and caliphate shall not unite in our family. I do not know what kind of fools in Kūfah I leave behind for you; [beware] that you may not be deceived and go out for their word [and put yourself in peril]. I have asked, Sayyidah Áāyishah rađiyallāhu ánhā, that I be buried with RasūlAllāh şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam. She has agreed to it. After I die, seek her permission [once more]. But I think that these people [the Umawis] shall prevent you from doing so. If they resist, desist.”
When he died, Ĥusayn came to the mother of believers, Áāyishah and sought her permission. She agreed and said: ‘It is an honor’. Marwān objected to it, and Ĥusayn stood his ground with his followers and drawn swords. Abū Hurayrah interfered and [stopped the fight]. Ĥasan was then buried in Baqīý alongside his mother – rađiyallāhu ánhumā.